Courses for Diploma and Part I M.Sc.
Candidates area required to take all the compulsory courses plus ONE of the four groups of optional courses. However, the four options may be reduced to two when deemed necessary i.e group I for meteorologists, mathematicians and physicists; group II for climatologists and professionals . If the groups are reduced to two, then the Scientific Committee should decide annually the optional courses offered for each group from among those found within the frame work of the course structure.
- Compulsory Courses
Course M 1: Physical Meteorology
Course M 2: Dynamic Meteorology
Course M 3: Synoptic Meteorology
Course M 4: Statistics and Computer use.
Course M 5: Contemporary Meteorological problems.
2. Optional Courses for Meteorologists
Course M 6: Aeronautical Meteorology
Course M 7: Satellite and Radar meteorology
Course M 8: Numerical weather Prediction
Course M 10: Tropical Meteorology
Course M 11: Meteorological instruments and methods of observation.
3. Optional Course for Geographers/Climatologists
Course M 7: Satellite and Radar Meteorology
Course M 9: Physics and Mathematics (Level A)
Course M 10: Tropical Meteorology.
Course M 11: Meteorological instruments and methods of observation.
Course M 14: Climatology
4. Optional Course for other Professionals
Course M 9: Physics and Mathematics (Level A)
Course M 11: Meteorological instruments and methods of observation.
Course M 12: Agro- and hydro-meteorology
Course M 13: Tropical Agro-meteorology
Course M 14: Climatology
5.Optional Courses for Physicists and Mathematicians
Course M 7: Satellite and Radar Meteorology
Course M 8: Numerical Weather Prediction
Course M 9: Physics and Mathematics (Level B).
Course M 15: Meteorological Models.
Course M 16: Numerical Treatment of Parabolic Equations.
Course Content
- Composition and stratification of the atmosphere. Composition of dry air, water vapour, ozone, carbon dioxide, aerosols, air pollution.
- Radiation:
- Solar radiation : Characteristics of the Sun, nature of solar radiation, depletion of solar radiation, normal flux at earth's surface, disposition of solar radiation under cloudless conditions and with cloudy skies.
- Terrestrial Radiation
- Characteristics, absorption, transmission through the atmosphere, Simpson's computation of atmospheric transfer, absorption coefficient, radiation heating and cooling.
- The mean heat balance.
- Thermodynamics of dry air.
- Thermodynamics of moist air.
- Hydro-static equilibrium.
- Thermodynamic diagrams.
- Vertical stability of the atmosphere.
- Clouds and precipitation.
- Atmospheric optics.
- Atmospheric electricity.
6. Course M 2: Dynamic Meteorology
(Compulsory. 2 hours/week, 16 weeks, one 3-hour exam paper).
Course Content
- Equations of motion
- Physical variables
- Prediction problems
- Static equilibrium in the atmosphere
- Distribution of pressure (vertical and horizontal).
- Circulations, vorticity, divergence, convergence.
- Balanced motion (geostrophic winds, actual winds, gradient winds and accelerated motions, thermal winds and solenoidal vector and changes in static stability due to advection .
- Stationary circular vortex.
- Discontinuity surfaces
- Atmospheric waves.
- Atmospheric turbulence
- Jet-streams.
7. Course M 3: Synoptic Meteorology
(Compulsory. 2 hours/week, 16 weeks, one 3-hour exam paper).
Course content
- Weather observations (surface synoptic stations, upper air synoptic stations, representativeness and accuracy of observations, special observing system).
- Date handling
- Analytical tools
- Normal field of atmospheric variables at M.S.I
- Cross sectional presentation of upper level winds.
- Standing waves.
- Air masses and fronts
- Large-scale motions in upper air
- Cyclones and anti-cyclones.
- Weather charts and synoptic analysis
8. Course M 4: Statistics and Computer Use
(Compulsory. 2 hours/week, 16 weeks. One 3-hour exam paper).
Course Content
- Statistical analysis
- Descriptive statistics.
- One way and two ways analysis of variance.
- Bivariate sample analysis.
- Correlation (simple and multiple).
- Regression analysis.
- Fit polynomial curve.
- Eigenvalues and eigenvectors for principal component .
- Computer Use
- Computer appreciation.
- Date management: entry, editing, and storage.
- Summary and validation.
- Report generation.
- Basic programming .
- Use of programme packages.
- Use of computer and statistical analysis in Meteorology and climatology.
9. Course M 5: Contemporary Meteorological Problems
(Compulsory. 2 hours/week. 16 weeks. One 3-hour exam paper).
Possible themes
- Climate and desertification.
- Climate and agriculture .
- Contemporary weather trends.
- Medium and long-range forecasting .
- Drought and other climatic hazards.
- Urban climatology and environmental pollution.
10. Course M 6: Aeronautical Meteorology
(Optional, 2 hours/week, 12 weeks, 1½ hour exam paper).
Course Content
- General aviation services.
- Meteorological services for international air navigation.
- Flight planning.
- Flight navigation .
- Weather radars.
- Reduced visibility and hazards.
- Thunderstorms.
- Turbulence.
- Aircraft icing
- Operations of aircrafts .
11.Course M 7: Satellite and Radar Meteorology
(Optional , 2 hours/week, 12 weeks. 1½ hour exam paper).
Course content
- Introduction
- History and development of satellites and radars .
- Solar radiation.
- Remote sensing
- Celestial mechanics
- Satellites instrumentation.
- Satellite behaviour in the atmosphere.
- Image analysis :
- Type of clouds
- Height of clouds
- Ocean temperatures
- Other atmospheric phenomena
- Coloured images and digital data
- Tropical storms and severe weather patterns.
- Dynamical patterns in the atmosphere.
- Areal estimation of rainfall.
- Uses of satellites in :
- agriculture
- arid zone
- Other uses of satellites (in e.g. climatology meteorology and oceanography).
- Very short-range forecast.
- Future developments.
12. Course M 8: Numerical Weather Prediction
(Optional . 2 hours/week. 12 weeks. 1½ hour exam paper).
Course Content
- The system of equations of atmospheric dynamics in the (X.Y.P) pressure coordinates.
- The free convection.
- Quasi-geostrophic system of equations.
- The equations for pressure variations.
- The equations for temperature variations
- The equations for vertical velocities.
- The effect of surface friction on the evolution of meteorological variables in the free atmosphere.
- The splitting-up methods and their applications in weather prediction.
- Weather prediction scheme based on conservation laws.
- The humidity prediction in the atmosphere (basic equation, boundary conditions and initial data, splitting up methods, different schemes for solving the equations of humidity transport).
- Radiation field in weather prediction .
- Objective analysis
13. Course M 9: Physics and Mathematics
(Optional. 2 hours/week. 12 weeks. 1½ hour exam paper).
Course Content
- Physics
1. Level (A)
Newton's laws, work, energy, oscillations, waves. Electro-stations, electro-
dynamics. Wave nature of light , light as part of electromagnetic radiation, radiation laws. Transfer of heat gas laws, kinetic theory of gases, first law of thermodynamics, second law of thermodynamics, entropy, Boltzman's law.
2. Level (B)
First law of thermodynamics, second law of thermodynamics, entropy, Boltzman's law, kinetic theory of gases, kinetic calculation of pressure, distribution of molecular speeds. Statistical description of systems of particles statistical thermodynamics, simple application of macroscopic thermodynamics.
Electric charge, electric field, Gauss's law, electric potential , in duded charges.
Ionization of the atmosphere, electrification of thunder clouds, lightening discharge, charge generation in clouds.
II. Mathematics
1. Level (A)
1. Numbers, indices and logarithms.
2. Multidimensional space.