1- Update of existing course
a- Fundamental of environment
This course can be updated by adding what is known as ‘Aichi Biodiversity Targets’ to link biodiversity to sustainable development. It include five strategic goals:
Strategic Goal A: Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society
Strategic Goal B: Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use
Strategic Goal C: To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity
Strategic Goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services
Strategic Goal E: Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building

OR
Better blend this course with a new course which is biodiversity with addition of 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets which aim at achieving a 2050 vision of a world without biodiversity loss or degradation of ecosystems.

b- Rural development course (to be consulted with Dr. Babiker)

A new concept can be added which is Asset-Based Community Development (ABCD) for sustainable livelihood which was promoted by the British Department of International Development (DFID) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Until recently, most NGOs operating in Sub-Saharan Africa used one or a combination of four approaches to their development work: a needs-based approach, a sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA), a rights-based approach, and/or participatory rural appraisal (PRA). The sustainable livelihoods approach has three essential features. Firstly, as a framework for analysis, it draws attention to the full range of assets that people draw upon to compose a livelihood, namely human, natural, financial, physical, and social and/or cultural assets. Secondly, as an instrument for policy and program design to reduce vulnerability, it emphasizes a holistic understanding of development so that an adequate asset mix can be created, sustained, and transferred from one generation to the next; a feature which has now translated into policies and programs dedicated to asset-building for sustainable livelihood outcomes. Thirdly, it puts people in the community at the centre as the principle agents of development, acting through community based organizations to collaborate with various other agents such as local government, NGOs, and the private sector.

 c- Arid land course

For the update, we need to differentiate between drought and aridity. Aridity is a measure of how dry/wet a region is on average over the long term; it is a permanent climatic characteristic of an area. Drought is a deviation from this long-term mean (which is different in different physiographic areas). Thus, droughts come and go, but aridity in an area remains. In arid areas, there are higher probabilities of drought occurrence - at least in the case of an ‘annual’ drought. Here we need to add the knowledge about the negative effect of El Nino causes lower rainfall ~ every 7 years, on food security in Sudan as:

• Low harvests can decrease local food availability and reduce income for rural families
• Risk of intensified lean season
• Change to livestock migration patterns could increase inter-communal conflicts, crop destruction and disease outbreaks
• Risk of high volatility of market prices

Vulnerability to agricultural drought (low, moderate, high) can be quantified by combining GIS coverage of individual meteorological and basin parameters (e.g.,soil root zone available holding capacity,land-use type,etc).Such vulnerability coverage can provide information on which crops are better in which parts of the state/country.Vulnerability indices could be based on damage incurred; population affected, number of droughts relative to land area,etc.Thus understanding and quantifying drought patterns and anticipated impacts is becoming a matter of ever increasing importance.

 New courses
a- Agroecology
I suggest a new course on agroecology which I also teach at University of Mamoun Humeida.I would like to quote a summary given by a Report submitted by the Special Rapporteur (Olivier De Schutter ) on the right to food, to the UN general assembly.The reinvestment in agriculture, triggered by the 2008 food price crisis,is essential to the concrete realization of the right to food.However, in a context of ecological, food and energy crises, the most pressing issue regarding reinvestment is not how much, but how. This report explores how States can and must achieve a reorientation of their agricultural systems towards modes of production that are highly productive, highly sustainable and that contribute to the progressive realization of the human right to adequate food. Drawing on an extensive review of the scientific literature published in the last five years,the Special Rapporteur identifies agroecology as a mode of agricultural development which not only shows strong conceptual.